Extract from Jack Kagans Story

"The Germans entered Novogrudek on July 4 1941 and immediately started enforcing anti-Jewish laws. We had to wear yellow stars on our clothes, Jews lost their rights of citizenship, which meant that if someone wanted to rob you (and many did), you could not complain to the authorities, as you had no protection.

My father and uncle worked as saddle-makers. My mother, aunt and others, including myself, were working on clearing up the bombed streets. For that we were issued food cards for 300 grams of bread and potatoes a day. We were not able to go to shops as normal and had to rely on the cards for access to most of our food."